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Category Names, Results, and Descriptions

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Calcimimetic Agents (1) • Small organic molecules that act as allosteric activators of the calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the PARATHYROID GLANDS and other tissues. They lower the threshold for CaSR activation by extracellular calcium ions and diminish PARATHYROID HORMONE (PTH) release from parathyroid cells. MeSH

Calcineurin Inhibitors (4) • Compounds that inhibit or block the PHOSPHATASE activity of CALCINEURIN. MeSH

Calcium Antagonists, Exogenous (0) see Calcium Channel Blockers

Calcium Channel Agonists (8) • Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture. MeSH

Calcium Channel Blockers (113) • A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes. MeSH

Calcium Chelating Agents (4) • Substances that bind to and sequester CALCIUM ions. MeSH

Calcium Ionophores (2) • Chemical agents that increase the permeability of CELL MEMBRANES to CALCIUM ions. MeSH

Cannabinoid Receptor Agonists (6) • Compounds that interact with and stimulate the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. MeSH

Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists (3) • Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS. MeSH

Cannabinoid Receptor Modulators (10)

Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors (12) • A class of compounds that reduces the secretion of H+ ions by the proximal kidney tubule through inhibition of CARBONIC ANHYDRASES. MeSH

Carcinogens (154) • Substances that increase the risk of NEOPLASMS in humans or animals. Both genotoxic chemicals, which affect DNA directly, and nongenotoxic chemicals, which induce neoplasms by other mechanism, are included. MeSH

Carcinogens, Environmental (6) • Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment. MeSH

Cardiac Depressants (0) see Anti-Arrhythmia Agents

Cardiotonic Agents (71) • Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE). MeSH

Cardiovascular Agents (748) • Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume. MeSH

Cariogenic Agents (2) • Substances that promote DENTAL CARIES. MeSH

Cariostatic Agents (10) • Substances that inhibit or arrest DENTAL CARIES formation. (Boucher's Clinical Dental Terminology, 4th ed) MeSH

Cariostatic Effect (0) see Cariostatic Agents

Caspase Inhibitors (2)

Catechol O-Methyltransferase Inhibitors (8) • Compounds and drugs that inhibit or block the activity of CATECHOL O-METHYLTRANSFERASE enzymes. Drugs in this class are used in management of central nervous system disorders such as PARKINSON DISEASE. MeSH

Cathartics (22) • Agents that are used to stimulate evacuation of the bowels. MeSH

Cation Exchange Resins (1) • High molecular weight insoluble polymers which contain functional anionic groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions with cations. MeSH

Caustics (4) • Strong alkaline chemicals that destroy soft body tissues resulting in a deep, penetrating type of burn, in contrast to corrosives, that result in a more superficial type of damage via chemical means or inflammation. Caustics are usually hydroxides of light metals. SODIUM HYDROXIDE and potassium hydroxide are the most widely used caustic agents in industry. Medically, they have been used externally to remove diseased or dead tissues and destroy warts and small tumors. The accidental ingestion of products (household and industrial) containing caustic ingredients results in thousands of injuries per year. MeSH

CCR5 Receptor Antagonists (6) • Compounds and drugs that inhibit or block the activity of CCR5 RECEPTORS. MeSH

Central Nervous System Agents (941) • A class of drugs producing both physiological and psychological effects through a variety of mechanisms. They can be divided into "specific" agents, e.g., affecting an identifiable molecular mechanism unique to target cells bearing receptors for that agent, and "nonspecific" agents, those producing effects on different target cells and acting by diverse molecular mechanisms. Those with nonspecific mechanisms are generally further classed according to whether they produce behavioral depression or stimulation. Those with specific mechanisms are classed by locus of action or specific therapeutic use. (From Gilman AG, et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p252) MeSH

Central Nervous System Depressants (381) • A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents). MeSH

Central Nervous System Stimulants (64) • A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here. MeSH

Chelating Agents (92) • Chemicals that bind to and remove ions from solutions. Many chelating agents function through the formation of COORDINATION COMPLEXES with METALS. MeSH

Chemical Warfare Agents (16) • Chemicals that are used to cause the disturbance, disease, or death of humans during WARFARE. MeSH

Chemosterilants (4) • Compounds that cause reproductive sterility in organisms. They are sometimes used to control pest populations by sterilizing males within the population. MeSH

Chloride Channel Agonists (1)

Cholagogues (0) see Cholagogues and Choleretics

Cholagogues and Choleretics (21) • Gastrointestinal agents that stimulate the flow of bile into the duodenum (cholagogues) or stimulate the production of bile by the liver (choleretic). MeSH

Choleretics (0) see Cholagogues and Choleretics

Cholinergic Agents (175) • Any drug used for its actions on cholinergic systems. Included here are agonists and antagonists, drugs that affect the life cycle of ACETYLCHOLINE, and drugs that affect the survival of cholinergic neurons. The term cholinergic agents is sometimes still used in the narrower sense of MUSCARINIC AGONISTS, although most modern texts discourage that usage. MeSH

Cholinergic Agonists (18) • Drugs that bind to and activate cholinergic receptors. MeSH

Cholinergic Antagonists (80) • Drugs that bind to but do not activate CHOLINERGIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of ACETYLCHOLINE or cholinergic agonists. MeSH

Cholinergic Effect (0) see Cholinergic Agents

Cholinesterase Inhibitors (65) • Drugs that inhibit cholinesterases. The neurotransmitter ACETYLCHOLINE is rapidly hydrolyzed, and thereby inactivated, by cholinesterases. When cholinesterases are inhibited, the action of endogenously released acetylcholine at cholinergic synapses is potentiated. Cholinesterase inhibitors are widely used clinically for their potentiation of cholinergic inputs to the gastrointestinal tract and urinary bladder, the eye, and skeletal muscles; they are also used for their effects on the heart and the central nervous system. MeSH

Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Irreversible (0) see Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Cholinesterase Inhibitors, Reversible (0) see Cholinesterase Inhibitors

Cholinesterase Reactivators (7) • Drugs used to reverse the inactivation of cholinesterase caused by organophosphates or sulfonates. They are an important component of therapy in agricultural, industrial, and military poisonings by organophosphates and sulfonates. MeSH

Cholinomimetics (0) see Cholinergic Agents

Chromogenic Compounds (15) • Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens). MeSH

Chromogenic Substrates (0) see Chromogenic Compounds

Clastogens (0) see Mutagens

Cleansing Agents (0) see Detergents

Coagulants (50) • Agents that cause clotting. MeSH

Coccidiostats (22) • Agents useful in the treatment or prevention of COCCIDIOSIS in man or animals. MeSH

Collagenase Inhibitors (0) see Matrix Metalloproteinase Inhibitors

Colloids (7)

Coloring Agents (272) • Chemicals and substances that impart color including soluble dyes and insoluble pigments. They are used in INKS; PAINTS; and as INDICATORS AND REAGENTS. MeSH

Competitive Opioid Antagonists (0) see Narcotic Antagonists

Complement Cytolysis Inhibiting Agents (0) see Complement Inactivating Agents

Complement Inactivating Agents (5) • Compounds that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. MeSH

Contraceptive Agents (76) • Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION. MeSH

Contraceptive Agents, Female (62) • Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. MeSH

Contraceptive Agents, Male (11) • Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in males. Use for male contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading. MeSH

Contraceptive Effect (0) see Contraceptive Agents

Contraceptives, Oral (42) • Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both. MeSH

Contraceptives, Oral, Combined (17) • Fixed drug combinations administered orally for contraceptive purposes. MeSH

Contraceptives, Oral, Hormonal (2) • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. MeSH

Contraceptives, Oral, Sequential (3) • Drugs administered orally and sequentially for contraceptive purposes. MeSH

Contraceptives, Oral, Synthetic (28) • Oral contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. MeSH

Contraceptives, Postcoital (8) • Contraceptive substances to be used after COITUS. These agents include high doses of estrogenic drugs; progesterone-receptor blockers; ANTIMETABOLITES; ALKALOIDS, and PROSTAGLANDINS. MeSH

Contraceptives, Postcoital, Hormonal (1) • Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to hormonal preparations. MeSH

Contraceptives, Postcoital, Synthetic (3) • Postcoital contraceptives which owe their effectiveness to synthetic preparations. MeSH

Contrast Media (83) • Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues. MeSH

Controlled-Release Preparations (0) see Delayed-Action Preparations

Convulsant Effect (0) see Convulsants

Convulsants (25) • Substances that act in the brain stem or spinal cord to produce tonic or clonic convulsions, often by removing normal inhibitory tone. They were formerly used to stimulate respiration or as antidotes to barbiturate overdose. They are now most commonly used as experimental tools. MeSH

Corrosives (0) see Caustics

Cosmetics (20) • Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995) MeSH

Counterirritants (0) see Irritants

Cross-Linking Reagents (45) • Reagents with two reactive groups, usually at opposite ends of the molecule, that are capable of reacting with and thereby forming bridges between side chains of amino acids in proteins; the locations of naturally reactive areas within proteins can thereby be identified; may also be used for other macromolecules, like glycoproteins, nucleic acids, or other. MeSH

Cryoprotective Agents (3) • Substances that provide protection against the harmful effects of freezing temperatures. MeSH

Cryoprotective Effect (0) see Cryoprotective Agents

Culture Media (1) • Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN. MeSH

Cyclooxygenase 2 Inhibitors (8) • A subclass of cyclooxygenase inhibitors with specificity for CYCLOOXYGENASE-2. MeSH

Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors (58) • Compounds or agents that combine with cyclooxygenase (PROSTAGLANDIN-ENDOPEROXIDE SYNTHASES) and thereby prevent its substrate-enzyme combination with arachidonic acid and the formation of eicosanoids, prostaglandins, and thromboxanes. MeSH

Cycloplegics (0) see Mydriatics

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors (28) • Exogenous and endogenous compounds which inhibit CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES. MeSH

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Endogenous (0) see Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors

Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors, Exogenous (0) see Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors

Cystine Depleting Agents (1) • Compounds and drugs that react with CYSTINE and convert it into a compound that can be more easily metabolized or intracellularly transported. Drugs in this class have been used to treat CYSTINOSIS. MeSH

Cystine Disulfide Reducing Agents (0) see Cystine Depleting Agents

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inducers (2) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP1A2. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2 Inhibitors (11) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP1A2. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inducers (3) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2B6. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2B6 Inhibitors (1) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2B6. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inducers (1) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C19. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C19 Inhibitors (4) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C19. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inducers (1) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C8. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C8 Inhibitors (2) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C8. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inducers (1) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C9. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2C9 Inhibitors (5) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2C9. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors (5) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP2D6. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP2E1 Inhibitors (1)

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers (9) • Drugs and compounds that induce the synthesis of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors (12) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP3A. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inducers (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A4 Inhibitors (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A5 Inducers (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A5 Inhibitors (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A7 Inducers (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inducers

Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A7 Inhibitors (0) see Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A Inhibitors

Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors (43) • Drugs and compounds which inhibit or antagonize the biosynthesis or actions of CYTOCHROME P-450 ENZYMES. MeSH

Cytochrome P-450 Monooxygenase Inhibitors (0) see Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors

Cytochrome P-450 Oxygenase Inhibitors (0) see Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme Inhibitors

Cytolysins (0) see Cytotoxins

Cytotoxins (6) • Substances that are toxic to cells; they may be involved in immunity or may be contained in venoms. These are distinguished from CYTOSTATIC AGENTS in degree of effect. Some of them are used as CYTOTOXIC ANTIBIOTICS. The mechanism of action of many of these are as ALKYLATING AGENTS or MITOSIS MODULATORS. MeSH

 
 
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